Leif Svalgaard's Research Page
This page is under perpetual construction Men at Work please come back...

Preprints and reprints by me

Edited versions of some of these may have been published by various journals,
holding copyrights to those versions.


N TSI-Reconstruction-2014 (My Guess)
M Wiki for SSN Workshops (SSN Workshops Home page)
L TSI-F10.7-MF-SSN-Solar Activity (Recent solar activity) (daily) (Hi-res)
K Active Region Count (updated weekly) details
J Solar Mean Field 2003-now (updated regularly)
I WSO Polar Fields since-2003 (updated every 10 days) since 1966
H Livingston and Penn.png (updated when new data) Distribution
G Sector Structure 1926-present.txt (IMF sector structure polarity) reverse order
F Sector Boundary List 1926-present.txt (IMF sector boundaries) reverse order
E Neutron Monitors Real Time Last six months of data
D WSO-SS.gif (Animation) (Wilcox Solar Observatory Movie of Magnetic Field on Source Surface)
C Notes on Geomagnetic Activity (From Climate Audit)
B Download of data links (Links to downloadable data)
A Leif Svalgaard Publications and Talks.pdf (Publ. List, needs update)
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2010 HMF-1835-2014-Sapporo.ppt (AOGS Sapporo, 2014) pdf new
2000 Revisiting-the-Sunspot-Number.pdf (Space Science Reviews (accepted), 2014) new
1990 Report-on-Extreme-Space-Weather-Events-2014.ppt (ESWE II at Boulder, 2014) pdf new
1980 Weighting-of-Sunspot-Counts.ppt (Weighting of SSN at Locarno, 2014) pdf new
1970 Confronting-Models-with-Reconstructions-and-Data.ppt (ESWE Boulder, 2014) pdf new
1960 The-Effect-of-Weighting-in-Counting-Sunspots-and-More.ppt (SSN4 Locarno, 2014) pdf new
1950 Big-Bear.ppt (Big Bear Observatory Lecture, 2014)
1940 ISSI-Book-Section-4.pdf (Bern, 2014)
1930 Magnetic-Fields-at-Hale-Solar-Sector-Boundaries.ppt (Huntsville Workshop, Orlando, FL, 2014) pdf
1920 Goelzer-Paper-2014.ppt (Journal Club [Goelzer et al. paper], Stanford, 2014) pdf
1910 Goelzer-Comment.pdf (Submitted JGR, 2014)
1900 HMF-1835-2014-and-the-Sun.ppt (HMF B 1835-2014 and the Sun, Stanford, 2014) pdf
1890 AGU Fall 2013 SH23D-02.ppt (Large Solar Events in Historical Context, 2013) pdf
1880 17GHz-Hale-Animation.ppt (Animation of Response to Hale-Boundary, 2013)
1870 What-Geomagnetism-can-Tell-Us-about-the-Solar-Cycle.ppt (ISSI workshop, Bern, 2013) pdf
1860 Long-term-Variation-Solar-Activity.pdf (To be submitted swsc, 2014)
1850 Error-Scale-Values-HLS.pdf (Ann. Geophys., 2014) Review History
1845 Locarno-S-G-Ratio.pdf (Work in Progress, 2013)
1840 Magnetogram-Calibrations.pdf (Comparison and Calibration of Magnetograms, 2014)
1830 Using-Old-Geomagnetic-Data.ppt (Using Old Data to Assess Solar Activity, 2013) pdf
1820 Reflections-on-IDV.pdf (Error bars and new data for IDV, 2013)
1810 Scale-Value-H-Helsinki.pdf (Scale-values for Magnetometers Helsinki, 2013)
1800 NS-Sept-2013-Sunspots.pdf (New Scientist, 2013)
1790 Counting-Sunspots.ppt (Project ASTRO, San Mateo, 2013) pdf
1780 CEAB-Cliver-et-al-2013.pdf (Recalibrating the Sunspot Number: The SSN Workshops, 2013)
1770 Reconciling-Group-and-Wolf-Sunspot-Numbers.ppt (Reconciling GSN & SSN, Oulu, 2013) pdf
1760 Luft-Data-Mining.ppt (Herbert Luft's sunspot observations, Boston, 2013) pdf
1750 Synoptic-Observations.ppt (Long-term Solar Synoptic Measurements with Implications for the Solar Cycle, Boulder, 2013) pdf
1740 swsc130003.pdf (Solar Activity - Past, Present, and Future, SWSC 2013) includes review history; published version
1730 The-Origin-of-Magnetic-Fields.ppt (The Biermann Battery, 2013) pdf
1720 AMJ-100-Years-Polar-Fields.ppt (Calibrating 100 Years of Polar Faculae, 2013) pdf
1710 Group-Number-Backbone.ppt (Building a Sunspot Group Number Backbone Series, Tucson, 2013) pdf
1700 Vistas-in-Solar-Activity.ppt (Vistas in Solar Activity, Tucson, 2013) pdf
1690 The-Spots-That-Wont-Form.ppt (The Spots That Won't Form, Tucson, 2013) pdf
1680 Coupling-Function-AMS93.ppt (The Solar Wind - Magnetosphere Coupling Function, Austin, 2013) pdf
1670 AGU Fall 2012 SH12A-07.ppt (Asymmetrical Solar Polar Field Reversals, 2012) pdf
1660 Solar-Petaluma--How Well Do We Know the SSN.ppt (Petaluma Poster, 2012) pdf
1650 apjl2012-Liv-Penn-Svalg.pdf (L&P Effect and F10.7, ApJL, 2012)
1640 Another-Maunder-Minimum.ppt (Nobeyama, Japan, 2012) pdf
1630 Solar Predictions Using Nobeyama Data.ppt (Nagoya, Japan, 2012) pdf
1620 On-Becoming-a-Scientist.ppt (Rikubetsu, Japan, 2012) pdf ( Japanese Version pdf )
1610 Solar-Activity-Past-Present-and-Future.ppt (TIEMS Conference, Oslo, Norway, 2012) pdf pdf with notes
1600 Helioseismology and the Helium Abundance.ppt (Stanford, 2012) pdf
1590 TIEMS-Oslo-2012-Svalgaard.doc (TIEMS Conference, Oslo, Norway, 2012) pdf
1580 Disappearance-of-Visible-Spots.ppt (Mini Workshop, Sunspot, NM, 2012) pdf
1570 HAO-Seminar, How Well Do We Know the SSN.ppt (Seminar HAO and SWPC, 2012) pdf
1560 Solar Wind During the Maunder Minimum.ppt (Seminar PSI, 2012) pdf
1550 Reconciliation of Group & International SSNs - Croatia.ppt (Hvar Croatia, 2012) pdf
1540 Asymmetric-Solar-Polar-Field-Reversals-talk.ppt (Polar Field Reversals, talk at Stanford, 2012) pdf talking points
1530 ApJ88587.pdf (Asymmetric Polar Field Reversals, In press ApJ, 2012) Review History
1520 Reconstruction of Sunspot Number.ppt (ISSI Workshop 233, 2012) pdf
1510 Reconciliation of Group & International SSNs.ppt (Sunspot NM, 2012) pdf
1500 What-is-Wrong-with-GSN.ppt (Stanford, 2012) pdf
1490 The long-term variation of solar activity.ppt (Nagoya Workshop: Sun-Climate, 2012) pdf
1480 AGU Fall 2011 SH34B-08.ppt (Is Solar Activity Modulated by Astronomical Cycles? 2011) pdf
1470 Polar-Fields-in-17GHz.ppt (Stanford, 2011) pdf
1460 Correction of Systematic Error in Nobeyama 17 GHz.pdf (Work in progress, 2011)
1450 Effect-of-Weighting-on-SSN.ppt (Seminar SSL, 2011) pdf
1440 How Well Do We Know the Sunspot Number.ppt (IAU 286, Mendoza, 2011) pdf (published version)
1430 Rudolf Wolf and the Sunspot Number.ppt (SSN Workshop I, 2011) pdf
1420 Geomagnetic Calibration of Sunspot Numbers.ppt (SSN Workshop I, 2011) pdf
1410 SSN-Workshop1-Weighting.ppt (Influence of Weighting, 2011) pdf
1400 The Mean Field of the Sun.ppt (The Mean Field of the Sun, 2011) pdf
1390 Solar Sector Structure.ppt (Solar Sector Structure, Seminar LMSAL, 2011) pdf
1380 Helium.ppt (The Helium Story, 2011) pdf
1370 SSN-Workshop-2nd-Circular.pdf (Sunspot workshop I, Sunspot, NM, 19-22 Sept., 2011)
1360 SHINE-2011-The-Forgotten-Sun.ppt (Plenary Talk at SHINE 2011) pdf
1350 Svalgaard_ISSI_Proposal_Base.pdf (Award of ISSI Workshop, 2011)
1340 Livingston-Penn Data and Findings so far.ppt (Livingston-Penn Finding, 2011) pdf
1330 History and Calibration of Sunspot Numbers.ppt (Sunspot Number Series, IUGG XXV, 2011) pdf
1320 Solar-Rotation-SOHO-EIT.pdf (Solar Rotation, 2011)
1310 Livingston-Poster.jpg (L&P Effect, poster SPD, 2011)
1300 Semiannual-Comment.pdf (The Semiannual Variation is not Overestimated, Accepted GRL 2011) Review History
1290 HMI-Livingston-Comparison.pdf (Comparison HMI - Livingston magnetic fields, Work in Progress, 2011)
1280 Sunspot-Calibration.pdf (Calibration of Sunspot Number, Work in Progress, 2011)
1270 SIDC-Seminar-12Jan.ppt (Calibration of Sunspot Number, II, 2011) pdf
1260 AGU Fall 2010 SH53B-03.ppt (Objective Calibration of Sunspot Numbers, 2010) pdf
1250 Eddy-Symp-Poster-2.ppt (Does the Sun Vary Enough?, 2010) pdf
1240 Eddy-Symp-Poster-1.ppt (Calibration of Sunspot Number, 2010) pdf
1230 Hale-Flares.pdf (Flaring Solar Hale Sector Boundaries, ApJ, 2011)
1220 Hale-Nugget.pdf (Hale boundaries and Solar Flares, 2010)
1210 SIDC-Seminar-14Sept.ppt (Calibration of Sunspot Number, 2010) pdf
1200 Waldmeier.pdf (Calibration of Sunspot Number, submitted GRL, rejected, 2010) Review History
1190 Hale Sector Boundaries.pdf (Hale Boudaries, work in progress, 2010)
1180 SHINE-2010-Microwave-Flux.ppt (SHINE Workshop, Santa Fe, NM, 2010) pdf
1170 Two Centuries Space Weather.ppt (Birkeland Wshop, Tromsø, 2010, Invited) pdf
1160 Does The Sun Vary Enough.ppt (Birkeland Wshop, Tromsø, 2010, Invited) pdf
1150 PMOD TSI-SOHO keyhole effect-degradation over time.ppt (SORCE, Keystone, CO, 2010) pdf
1140 Heliospheric Magnetic Field 1835-2010.ppt (SORCE, Keystone, CO, 2010) pdf
1130 Predicting the Solar Cycle (SORCE 2010).ppt (SORCE, Keystone, CO, 2010, Invited) pdf
1120 AGU Fall 2009 SH13C-03.ppt (Solar Radio Microwave Flux and Sunspot Numbers, 2009) pdf
1110 Rudolf Wolf Was Right.ppt (Seminar UC Berkeley, Dec. 2009) pdf
1100 Solar-Microwaves-at-23-24-Minimum.ppt (Hinode Science Meeting, Tokyo, 2009) pdf
1090 Historical Solar Cycle Context.ppt (WHI II Workshop, Boulder, 2009) pdf
1080 Heliospheric Magnetic Field 1835-2009.pdf (JGR, 2010) Review history   (Data Archive, 450 MB)
1075 Solar-Flux-and-Sunspot-Number.pdf (SOHO-23, Asticou, 2009)
1070 Updating the Historical Sunspot Record.ppt (SOHO-23, Asticou, 2009) pdf   journal version (pdf)
1060 Predicting the Solar Cycle.ppt (Solar Analogs II, Lowell, 2009) pdf
1050 H02-FRI-O1430-0550.ppt (Geomagnetic Indices, IAGA, Sopron, 2009) pdf
1040 SPD-2009.pdf (The Waldmeier Discontinuity, 2009)
1030 Reduction of Spatially Resolved Magnetic Field by Scattered Light.pdf (Scattered Light Contamination at WSO, 2009)
1025 The SWPC Solar Flux.pdf (The Strange SWPC graph of F10.7 flux, 2009)
1020 Solar Radio Flux.pdf (Possible Changes in SSN and F10.7 Relationship, 2009)
1010 Greenland-Magnetic-Observatory-Support.pdf (Letter of Support for Greenland Obs., 2009)
1000 Mean Field Workshop UCLA.pdf (Workshop for Calibration of Solar Magnetic Fields, 2009)
990 Xudong-AGU2008-Poster.pdf Xudong Sun, Polar magnetic fields observed during the last four solar minima (AGU 2008)
980 A Prediction for the 24th Solar Cycle.pdf (Brajsa et al., CEAB, 2009)
970 Modeling a Shallow Solar Dynamo.pdf (Ken Schatten, Solar Phys, 2009)
960 On solar cycle predictions and reconstructions.pdf (Brajsa et al., A&A, 2009)
950 Notes on HMF at Minima and Rmax.pdf (Trying to understand the correlation between Bmin and Rmax, 2008)
940 AGU Fall 2008 SH51A-1593.pdf (Predicting Solar Cycle 24 [Using Solar Polar Fields], 2008)
930 AGU Fall 2008 SH24A-01.pdf (Towards a Consensus View of the Heliospheric Magnetic Field Strength Since 1900, 2008)
920 Napa Solar Cycle 24.pdf (Plenary Talk: Recalibration of the Sunspot Number and Consequences for Predictions of Future Activity and Reconstructions of Past Solar Behavior, 2008)
910 IAGA2008LS-writeup.pdf (Keynote Writeup: XIII IAGA Workshop) 170 Years Observatory Data, 2008 [Final version]
900 TSI-SORCE Friday Effect.pdf (TSI is different on Fridays?, 2008)
890 Seminar-SPRG-2008.pdf (Seminar at SPRG, 2008) Long-term Variations of Open Flux in the Heliosphere
880 IAGA2008LS.pdf (Keynote Talk: XIII IAGA Workshop) 170 Years Observatory Data, 2008
870 AGU Spring 2008 GP53A-07.pdf (Invited Talk: IHV and IDV Indices: Derivation and Stability, 2008)
860 AGU Spring 2008 SH44A-02.pdf (Invited Talk (Cliver): ~130 Years of Solar Wind Data: The Floor and More, 2008) [ppt]
850 AGU Spring 2008 SP23A-07.pdf (Sunspot Number Calibration by the Magnetic Needle Makes Sense, 2008)
840 New Solar Cycle Not Packing Much Punch.pdf (Livingston & Penn, 2008)
830 MgII-and-UV.xls (Comparisons MGII and UV, f10.7, 2008)
820 Seminar-UCLA-ESS288.pdf (Seminar at UCLA, 2008) Long-term Variations of Open Flux in the Solar Corona
810 ast10867.pdf (On the solar rotation and activity, Brajsa et al., Astr. Nachr., 2008)
800 Seminar-LMSAL.pdf (Seminar at LMSAL, 2008) Consensus Heliospheric Magnetic Field during the last ~120 years
790 Solar Polar Fields Normalized to Next Cycle.pdf (Updated prediction basis, 2008)
780 TSI From McCracken HMF.pdf (TSI Reconstruction 1428-2005, Santa Fe, SORCE 2008)
775 McCracken Comment.pdf (Comment on McCracken HMF 1428-2005, JGR (rejected) 2008) Report-Reply
770 TSI (Reconstructions).xls (TSI Reconstructions 1700-present, 2008) [as text, as PDF]
760 GC31B-0351-F2007.pdf ((No?)Century-scale Secular Variation in HMF, EUV, or TSI; AGU Fall 2007)
750 SH13A-1109-F2007.pdf (Geomagnetic Underpinning: Wolf's Sunspot Number; AGU Fall 2007)
740 De maculis in Sole observatis.pdf (Showing that Waldmeier introduced a jump in Rz, 2007)
730 TSI-LEIF.pdf (My version of TSI, 2007)
720 Comment on McCracken.pdf (HMF 1428-2005, Submitted to JGR 2007).
710 CAWSES - IMF, EUV, TSI.pdf ( CAWSES Newsletter: vol 4, issue 2, 2007)
700 Interhourly variability index of geomagnetic activity.pdf (IHV-Index Definition, JGR 2007) (Data Archive, 450 MB)
690 Consensus IMF B.pdf (Svalgaard & Cliver vs. Rouillard et al. , 2007)
680 How we determine solar wind parameters for the past 150 years.pdf (Seminar at AFRL, Aug. 2007)
670 MWO MPSI - F107.pdf (Calibration of MWO Magnetic Data, 2007)
660 The Open Flux Has Been Constant Since 1840s (SHINE2007).pdf (Invited talk SHINE 2007)
650 SOLIS-WSO Disk Analysis.pdf (Work in progress, 2007)
640 Analysis of K=0 and 1 for aa and NGK.pdf (Work in progress, 2007)
630 SSN Validation-Reconstruction (Cliver).ppt (Talk by Ed Cliver at Perugia, 2007 ( PDF-version ))
620 AGU Spring 2007 SH54B-02.pdf (Calibrating Sunspot Numbers Using the Magnetic Needle)
610 AGU Spring 2007 SH54B-03.pdf (Continuous Long-Term Record and Magnetic Storm Occurrence and Intensity, J. Love)
600 Solar Wind at Earth 1883-2007.pdf (Comparison S&C and R,L,&F)
590 Solar Mean Field 2003.pdf (Comparison WSO, MWO, SOLIS, CrAO observatories)
580 Cycle 24 A(t) Index.pdf (Tlatov's A(t) Index, through Apr., 2007)
570 When is Minimum.pdf (Sunspot Prediction Workshop for Cycle 24, Boulder 2007)
560 Geomagnetic Precursor Minimum Method.pdf (Sunspot Prediction Workshop for Cycle 24)
550 MgII Calibration.pdf (MgII wrong after 1st Jan. 2002, 2007)
540 A Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field.pdf (ApJ Letters, 2007)
530 Nobeyama Polar Fields 1993-2006.pdf (updated regularly)
520 CAWSES - Sunspots.pdf (CAWSES Newsletter, vol 4, issue 1, 2007)
510 Scattered Light Influence on Magnetic Field at WSO.pdf (Work in Progress)
500 Percolation and the Solar Dynamo.pdf (Schatten's percolation model ApJS 2007) Hinode Movie
490 Grow-N-Crash Prediction Model.pdf (Panel, Boulder 2006)
480 Polar Fields and Cycle 24 (Observations).pdf (Panel, Boulder 2006)
470 AGU Fall 2006 SH21A-0313.pdf (A Floor in the Open Flux IMF Strength Constant in Time (Centuries) and Space (Latitude)?)
460 IHV(rot) years 1844-2010.xls (Geomagnetic Activity Bartels Rotations)
450 IDV yearly means 1872-2006.xls (IDV-index and derived IMF B)
440 Hathaway peaks.pdf (Geomagnetic precursor; Panel, Boulder, 2006)
430 Hemispheric analysis of PF and SSN.pdf (Boulder Workshop homework, 2006)
420 Long-term geomagnetic indices - solar wind in the past.pdf (Crippled Version of Sinaia Talk, AdvSpRes 2007)
410 Long-term geomagnetic indices - solar wind in the past.pdf (Full Version of Sinaia Talk 2006)
400 Physics-based Long-term Geomagnetic Indices.pdf (Invited talk, ISSC2 - Sinaia, Romania, 2006)
390 The Solar Wind During Grand Minima.pdf (Invited talk [Ed], ISSC2 - Sinaia, Romania, 2006)
380 Polar Fields and Nobeyama 17 GHz Radio Flux.pdf (work in progress)
370 Cycle 24 Predictions SHINE 2006.pdf (Invited talk, SHINE 2006)
360 Solar Magnetographs SHINE 2006.pdf (Invited talk, SHINE 2006)
350 AGU Spring 2006 SH51A-06.pdf (IMF B 1902-1912 from polar cap)
340 POES Power and IHV.pdf (Space Weather Week, 2006)
330 Polar Fields and Cycle 24.pdf (Space Weather Week, 2006)
320 Dikpati Referee Report.pdf (My Referee's Report on Dikpati et al., GRL 2006)
310 Reply to Lockwood IDV Comment.pdf (The Comment may or may not be here)
300 Fair Space Weather - Cycle 24.pdf (Schatten's prediction GRL 2005)
290 Cycle 24 Prediction Lund.pdf (Lund, 2005)
280 AGU Fall 2005 SA12A-04.pdf (Re-derivation of Dst Index)
270 Cycle 24 Smallest 100 years.pdf (Prediction of Cycle 24 GRL 2005)
260 Comment on Dst paper by K and M.pdf (unpublished manuscript 2005)
250 AGU Spring 2005 SH23C-05.pdf (Magnetograph "saturation")
240 1859 Storm - Extreme Space Weather.pdf (Solar Physics 2004)
230 Comment on Clilverd et al Reconstructing aa.pdf (unpublished manuscript 2004)
220 AGU Fall 2004 SM41A-02.pdf (Semiannual Variation: protons or photons)
210 The IDV index - its derivation and use.pdf (JGR 2005, IMF B 1872-2004, Submitted version)
200 Semiannual Variation 1954 and 1996.pdf (AnGeo 2004)
190 Asymmetric Rosenberg-Coleman Effect.pdf (GRL 2004)
180 No Increase VxB Since 1926.pdf (JGR 2004. From polar cap stations)
170 AGU Fall 2003 SH21B-0108.pdf (New Geomagnetic Index (IDV) Measuring Magnitude of Interplanetary Magnetic Field, 2003)
160 IHV-Index (JGR - Version 1).pdf (IHV-Index Definition. Rejected by JGR 2003)
150 Determination IMF, SW, EUV, 1890-2003.pdf (Invited talk, ISCS, Slovakia 2003)
140 No Doubling of Open Flux.pdf (Rejected by Nature, 2003)
130 IHV - a new long-term geomagnetic index.pdf (COSPAR 2002; AdvSpRes 2004)
120 No Doubling.pdf (of Sun's open magnetic flux; unpublished manuscript 2002)
110 The semiannual variation of great geomagnetic storms.pdf (GRL 2002)
106 Rotation of the Sun.pdf (Astrophys. Journal, 1980)
100 Sun's Poloidal and Toroidal Magnetic Field.pdf (Solar Phys. 1979)
90 Using Dynamo Theory to Predict Solar Cycle 21.pdf (Schatten, Scherrer, Svalgaard, Wilcox, GRL 1978)
85 Reply to Comment on Aa Index.pdf (Mayaud and Svalgaard, JGR, 1978)
80 The Strength of the Sun's Polar Fields.pdf (Solar Phys. 1978)
75 Calculation of Spherical Harmonics.pdf (Program description, 1978)
70 A View of Solar Magnetic Fields, the Solar Corona, and the Solar Wind in Three Dimensions.pdf (1978 Review)
60 Geomagnetic Activity: Dependence on Solar Wind Parameters (pdf) (SUIPR 699; Coronal Hole Workshop, 1977)
55 Recalibrating Bartels.pdf (JGR, 1976)
50 Anomalous Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy, 1954.pdf (Ester Antonucci, 1976)
42 HCS-Nature-1976.pdf (Nature 1976)
40 The Hale Solar Sector Boundary.pdf (Solar Phys. 1976)
30 Long-term Evolution of Solar Sector Structure.pdf (Solar Phys. 1975)
20 Atlas of IMF Polarity 1947-1975.pdf (SUIPRs 629 and 648)
15 On the Use of Godhavn for IMF Polarity.pdf (JGR 1975)
12 Sun Magnetic Sector Structure.pdf (Solar Phys. 1975)
10 Rigid-Rotation-Corona.pdf (Solar Phys. 1974)
11 Green-Corona-and-Solar-Sector-Structure.pdf (Solar Phys. 1974)
9 Model Polar-Sector Solar Magnetic Fields.pdf (Solar Phys. 1974)
8 Coronal Structure at Sector Boundary.pdf (Solar Phys. 1974)
7 Geomagnetic-Response-to-Solar-Wind.pdf (NASA 1973)
6 SUIPR-521.pdf (Azimuthal IMF and Geomagnetic Response, 1973)
5 Green-Corona-Antonucci.pdf (Green Corona & Sectors, 1973)
4 JA078i013p02064.pdf (Polar Cap & IMF Sectors, JGR 1973)
3 JA077i022p04027.pdf (IMF Magnetic Sectors, 1926-1971, JGR 1972)
1 DMI-R6.pdf (Sector structure, Geomagnetic field, 1968)


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